[This article] says that it does. And it further explains why cats go nuts for it.
[This article] goes into much more depth, although it's written by a catnip supply company, so they might come from a certain perspective. Also it disagrees with the previous article on tigers, but says other big cats do love it.
[This article] includes a history of catnip, and says tigers are affected.
There seems to be a disagreement on tigers overall. I can't seem to find a site which says whether tigers become violent or aggressive on catnip though. I suppose it's possible that both of these things might be explained by the fact that it's possible no one has had the balls to walk up to a tiger with a handful of catnip. ;)